Sapiens and Homo Deus by Yuval Noah Harari Read Online (FREE)
Timeline of History
Years Before the Present
Matter and energy appear. Beginning of physics. Atoms and molecules appear. Beginning of chemistry.
Formation of planet Earth.
Emergence of organisms. Beginning of biology.
Last common grandmother of humans and chimpanzees.
Evolution of the genus Homo in Africa. First stone tools.
Humans spread from Africa to Eurasia. Evolution of different human species.
Neanderthals evolve in Europe and the Middle East.
Daily usage of fire.
Homo sapiens evolves in East Africa.
The Cognitive Revolution. Emergence of fictive language. Beginning of history. Sapiens spread out of Africa.
Sapiens settle Australia. Extinction of Australian megafauna.
Extinction of Neanderthals.
Sapiens settle America. Extinction of American megafauna.
Extinction of Homo floresiensis. Homo sapiens the only surviving human species.
The Agricultural Revolution. Domestication of plants and animals. Permanent settlements.
First kingdoms, script and money. Polytheistic religions.
First empire – the Akkadian Empire of Sargon.
Invention of coinage – a universal money.
The Persian Empire – a universal political order ‘for the benefit of all humans’.
Buddhism in India – a universal truth ‘to liberate all beings from suffering’.
Han Empire in China. Roman Empire in the Mediterranean. Christianity.
The Scientific Revolution. Humankind admits its ignorance and begins to acquire unprecedented power. Europeans begin to conquer America and the oceans. The entire planet becomes a single historical arena. The rise of capitalism.
The Industrial Revolution. Family and community are replaced by state and market. Massive extinction of plants and animals.
Humans transcend the boundaries of planet Earth. Nuclear weapons threaten the survival of humankind. Organisms are increasingly shaped by intelligent design rather than natural selection.
Intelligent design becomes the basic principle of life? Homo sapiens is replaced by superhumans?
The Cognitive Revolution
- A human handprint made about 30,000 years ago, on the wall of the Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc Cave in southern France. Somebody tried to say, ‘I was here!’
An Animal of No Significance
ABOUT 13.5 BILLION YEARS AGO, MATTER, energy, time and space came into being in what is known as the Big Bang. The story of these fundamental features of our universe is called physics.
About 300,000 years after their appearance, matter and energy started to coalesce into complex structures, called atoms, which then combined into molecules. The story of atoms, molecules and their interactions is called chemistry.
About 3.8 billion years ago, on a planet called Earth, certain molecules combined to form particularly large and intricate structures called organisms. The story of organisms is called biology.
About 70,000 years ago, organisms belonging to the species Homo sapiens started to form even more elaborate structures called cultures. The subsequent development of these human cultures is called history.
Three important revolutions shaped the course of history: the Cognitive Revolution kick-started history about 70,000 years ago. The Agricultural Revolution sped it up about 12,000 years ago. The Scientific Revolution, which got under way only 500 years ago, may well end history and start something completely different. This book tells the story of how these three revolutions have affected humans and their fellow organisms.