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The Art of Loving by Erich Fromm Read Online (FREE)

[16] Cf. Maimonides” concept of the negative attributes in The Guide for the Perplexed.

[17] Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book Gamma, 1005b. 20. Quoted from Aristotle’s Metaphysics, newly translated by Richard Hope, Columbia University Press, New York, 1952.

[18] Lao-tse, The Tâo The King, The Sacred Books of the East, ed. by F. Max Mueller, Vol. XXXIX, Oxford University Press, London, 1927, p. 120.

[19] W. Capelle, Die Vorsokratiker, Alfred Kroener Verlag, Stuttgart, 1953, p. 134. (My translation. E. F.)

[20] H. R. Zimmer, Philosophies of India, Pantheon Books, New York, 1951.

[21] Meister Eckhart, translated by R. B. Blakney, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1941, p. 114.

[22] lbid., p. 247. Cf. also the negative theology of Maimonides.

[23] Meister Eckhart, op. cit., pp. 181-2.

[24] Cf. a more detailed discussion of the problem of alienation and of the influence of modern society on the character of man in E. Fromm The Sane Society, Rinehart & Company, New York, 1955.

[25] S. Freud Civilization and Its Discontents, translated by J. Riviere, The Hogarth Press, Ltd., London, 1953, p. 69.

[26] S. Freud, Gesammelte Werke, London, 1940-52, Vol. X.

[27] The only pupil of Freud who never separated from the master, and yet who in the last years of his life changed his views on love, was Sándor Ferenczi. For an excellent discussion on this subject see The Leaven of Love by Izette de Forest, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1954.

[28] H. S. Sullivan, The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 1953, p. 246. It must be noted that although Sullivan gives this definition in connection with the strivings of pre-adolescence, he speaks of them as integrating tendencies, coming out during pre-adolescence, “which when they are completely developed, we call love,” and says that this love in pre-adolescence “represents the beginning of something very like full-blown, psychiatrically defined love.”

[29] Ibid., p. 246. Another definition of love by Sullivan, that love begins when a person feels another person’s needs to be as important as his own, is less colored by the marketing aspect than the above formulation.

[30] For a picture of the concentration, discipline, patience and concern necessary for the learning of an art, I want to refer the reader to Zen in the Art of Archery, by E. Herrigel, Pantheon Books, Inc., New York, 1953.

[31] While there is a considerable amount of theory and practice on this point in the Eastern, especially the Indian cultures, similar aims have been followed in recent years also in the West. The most significant, in my opinion, is the school of Gindler, the aim of which is the sensing of one’s body. For the understanding of the Gindler method, cf. also Charlotte Selver’s work, in her lectures and courses at the New School, in New York.

[32] The root of the word education is e-ducere, literally, to lead forth, or to bring out something which is potentially present.

[33] Cf. Herbert Marcuse’s article “The Social Implications of Psychoanalytic Revisionism,” Dissent, New York, summer, 1955.